IMI Interdisciplinary Mathematics InstituteCollege of Arts and Sciences

Ninth Annual Graduate Student Mini-conference in Computational Mathematics

Jae Ho (Mike) Lee
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Verification and validation of bioprosthetic heart valve FSI simulations

  • Feb. 17, 2018
  • 2 p.m.
  • LeConte 412

Every year, 300,000 heart valve repair/replacement procedures are performed worldwide in order to treat stenosis or regurgitation. This number continues to increase as these procedures become less invasive by using more transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or by expanding access to cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology. Heart valves can be replaced with prosthetic or manufactured heart valves, but there are still difficulties with current prosthetic heart valves. Mechanical heart valves (MHVs) are durable but yield non-physical flow patterns that induce platelet activation, possibly causing other complications such as stroke, pulmonary embolism, or myocardial infarction. As a result, patients with MHVs need blood thinners for lifetime, which increases a risk of bleeding. Bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs), which are made out of either bovine or porcine pericardium, are becoming increasingly popular because they yield hemodynamics flow patterns that are similar to the native valve, allowing patients to avoid complications from using MHVs. However, currently available BHVs require replacement after 10-15 years due to degradation of the tissue. A fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach is necessary in modeling heart valves, which are thin elastic structures that interact with the blood flow. This presentation will describe ongoing work to develop computational models of prosthetic heart valve dynamics using extensions of the immersed boundary (IB) method. This work starts by evaluating the accuracy of the approach using benchmark problems associated with such modeling. The accuracy of the computational model is assessed by comparing with experimental measurements acquired in a left heart pulse duplicator system. This will ultimately lead to developing high-fidelity predictive models to perform simulations that can help answer challenging questions about optimal device performance, device selection, regulation for future cardiovascular devices, and surgical planning.

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